The decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan about “The Reorganization of Khorezm Ma’mun Academy” was a significant step in developing scientific capability of Uzbekistan, strengthening its role in the world, developing the science in different zones, supporting intellectual and self-sacrificing scientists, and developing national traditions in creating highly intellectual condition.
In November, 1997 the departments like “Archeology, history and philosophy”, “Language and Literature”, “The problems of Biology” were opened there, and according to 9 scientific topics 26 scientific workers, additionally, 5 PhDs and 9 candidates conducted scientific researches.
The workers of the department of “Archeology, history and philosophy” did researches on topics “The history of State of Uzbek in ancient and middle centuries in Khorezm”, “The role of Khorezm in the ethnographic history of Uzbek people”, “Investigating the archeological monuments of Khorezm region”.
According to the topic “The role of Khorezm in the ethnographic history of Uzbek people” the placement of some ethnographic groups existed in Khorezm region was determined. Information about their traditions, cultural lifestyle was gathered. The researches were conducted in the location of the Bronze Age - Sharofat which is situated in the area of Tuproqqal’a in Hazorasp region, in monuments of Tosh qal`a-2 which belongs to antique and early middle ages, and also at the hill of Uch O’choq and the bay of Mishekli. For the first time, there was found wooden findings which were remained fully.
On the topic - “The history of State of Khorezm in ancient and middle centuries” some scientific sources which can analyze the archeological researches and explain the history of ancient states were implemented. It was identified that all scientific evidences were enough to prove that the State of Khorezm had 3000-year-history.
In the department of “Language and Literature” according to the topic “The written literature and oral epos of Khorezm in 9-13th centuries. The language of the memorials of Khorezm related to 9-13th centuries” the written and oral legends and tales of Khorezm were analyzed comparing with mythological stratum of “Avesto”. With the help of analyzed written and oral examples the features of literary languages and their mutual effects were learned.
In 1997-2002, in the department of “The problems of Biology” some researches were conducted on 7 scientific topics. In the climatic condition of Khorezm, some fertile and durable sorts of plants were studied. Biological bases of exchange planting were investigated, and growing and developing process of 12 sorts of cotton-plant, 2 sorts of wheat and clover, and 10 sorts of rice plant were studied.
In the condition of our region some researches were conducted on effective technologies of caring nutritious plants on the main, middle and repeated plantings, and creating the seed system of maize.
By studying regional features of sand appearing process on the low flow of Amudarya the legalities of sand salinity were identified, and there were given some recommendations on the development of fertileness of sowing.. In Khorezm region annual economical result which was taken in 2001 was 775,9 mln sums.
According to the details of fauna and ecologic-population of termites of Khorezm region the spread and composition of termites, their biology and structure of their population were studied. It was recommended to use entomopatoges in fighting against termites.
Abu Rayhon Beruniy
Abu Rayhon Beruniy was one of the most prominent scholars, talented leaders, skilled organizers of Khorezm Mamun Academy. He was educated by Abu Nasr Iroq, Al Masihiy, and Al Khirojiy, he was attained as a prominent scholar of astronomy, mathematics, biology, and history when he was 21. Beruniy wrote 156 works in different fields of science, but 30 of them have survived until our own time. 'Qadimgi xalqlardan qolgan yodgorliklar ' ( the keepsakes handed down from ancient folks), 'India', Mineralogy', 'The law of Masudiy', 'Saydana' and other works made him famous and even nowadays are considered as rare works. The great contribution of the scholar in astronomy is that he worked on /observed the sun, the moon and planets and determined the exact position of them in the universe. He proved that the earth goes round its orbit, more than six centuries before European scientists. His deductions about the dimensions of the earth are nearly exact with current data, considered one of the most fairly precise and perfect deductions, Beruniy defined notions of Arithmetic, Algebra, geometry and theory of Numerals with classifications, he promoted trigonometry as an independent science. He indicated the position of countries in seven continents, the exact coordination of seas and islands in his geographical works and worked out the exact map of the world. He discovered the figure of the earth — the globe with the astronomic equipment invented by his own, the globe was one of the greatest inventions in history of mankind. He proved that Indian and Atlantic oceans were connected, differing from Greek scholars, predicted the existence of unknown, great continent beyond the ocean — the continent of America, five centuries before Christopher Columbus. Beruniy greatly contributed to history, language and literature , medicine and ethnography.
Abu Sahl Masihiy
The information about the great naturalist of the Orient Abu Sahl Masihiy were arrived in the works of Beruniy, Bayhakiy, ibn al Kuffiy, ibn Abu Usaybia. Beruniy mentioned the complete name of the scholar as "Abu Sahl Iso ibn Yaxyo al -Masihiy" in his pamphlet named "Geodeziya". Abu Sahl Masihiy was born in 970, in Jurjon, the town located southern-eastern bank of Caspian Sea and he was educated in the madrasas of Bagdad, Iran, Khurasan and became a famous scientist in the Orient. Masihiy worked in the palace of Qobus ibn Vushmagir, the Emir of Jurjon for a long time. In 995-997 he moved to Urgench, formerly served Ma'mun Ibn Muhammad, then Ali ibn Ma'mun, since 1004 he worked with Beruniy, Ibn Sino, Abul Hayr Hammor and other scientists in Ma'mun Academy for 16years and was promoted as scientific assistant of the academy. Masihiy wrote works concerning astronomy, mathematics, nature science, philosophy, logics, especially medicine. He was known as medical -scientist in the Orient. Abu Sahl Masihiy was close friend of Beruniy and Ibn Sino, Masihiy taught them in medicine. Ibn Sino learned both theoretically and practically from him and took advice while writing ,,Tib qonunlari". However, Masihiy did not live long in Khorezm. After the conquest of Mahmud Gaznaviy. He was leaving Khorezm with his apprentice Ibn Sino, but he passed away from illness on the way, when he was 40. Although Masihiy's all of the works have not been survived until our own times, the survived ones concerning mathematics, geometry, astronomy, medicine, philosophy and ethics shows that he was greatly talented. There are kept works of Masihiy's concerning medicine in the libraries of the world. They give information about therapy, physiology, nerve, smallpox, cholera. The works were named as ,,Tabobat san'ati boyicha yuz masala''( 100 matters on medicine ), "Odamni yaratishda Olloh taolo donoliklarining sirini ochish","General medicine"," Relevant Pamphlet on smallpox". There is given information besides medicine, about philosophy, logics, biology,physiology. The greatest work of the scientist is considered "Tabobat san'ati boyicha yuz masala'' ("Hunder masters on medicine") by encyclopedial scholars. The only uncompleted manuscript written in Arabic is kept in the library of Sharqshunoslik (Oriental) Institute, in Tashkent. The manuscript contains 16 chapters, besides the general matters of medicine, human diseases , their causes, the ways of treatment, as well as pharmacology were defined. The prominent scholar of the Orient Aruziy Samarqandiy valued "Hundred matters on medicine (,,Tabobat san'ati boyicha yuz masala'') as rare as the books of roman physician Galen , ar-Rоziy and ibn Sino, as well as recommended to learn deeply. Unfortunately the scientific heritage of Abu Sahl Masihiy is not investigated sufficiently.
ABU MANSUR AS-SAOLIBIY
Abu Mansur Abdalmalik ibn-Muhammad as-Saоlibiy (961-1038) and Abul Хayr ibn al-Hammоr (942-1032) were leader scholars of the Mamun Academy. A prominent scholar poet and historian as-Saоlibiy was born in 961 in Nishopur. He learned deeply history, literature, logics, and Arabic language. Dwelling on difficult conditions, he made a living by doing po'stindo'zlik . As-Saоlibiy went to most towns and countries such as Marv, Gazna, Bukhoro and Khorezm and talked to prominent scholars. In the rest of his life, he lived in Urgench, worked in Mamun Academy, was respected among other scientists. Some sources show that as-Saolibiy wrote 51 works concerning history, logics and literature however only following ones have been survived until our own times: "Yatimat ad-dahr fi mahоsin ahl ul-asr (The only profound book about characters of the people of the time") "Kitоb al-g’urar" (Informational book ) Tatimmat al-yatima" ("Yatimat al-dahr qo’shimchasi"), "Latоif ul-maоrif" ("Latif aхbоrоtlari"), "Shams ul-adab fi istе’mоl al-arab" Moral sun of using Arabic language) "Kitоb al-Tamsil va-l-muхadarat" (Rare words and talk) "Makоrim ul-ahlоq" (Preferable characters) and "G’urar aхbоr muluk ul-furs va siyaruхum" ( Information about Iranian padishahs). "Yоtimat ad-dahr" and "Kitоb al-g’urar" are relevant to learn historical culture of central Asia. The book of "information about Iranian padishahs" consists of 4 volumes, it narrates about social, political events occurred in Iran, Afghanistan and central Asia. Generally, Historian As-Saolibiy provided reliable information about 124 scholars, writers and statesman who lived in Khorezm, Khurasan and central Asia.As well as, there existed valuable information about contemporary people of Beruniy and his co-workers Abu Bakr Muhammad al-Хоrazmiy, Abu Sa’id Ahmad ibn Shabib ash-Shabibiy, Abul Hasan Ma’mun ibn Muhammad ibn Ma’mun, Abu Abdullоh Muhammad ibn Ibrоhim ar-Raqqоshiy, Abu Abdullоh Muhammad ibn Hamid al-Хоrazmiy, Abul Qоsim Ahmad ibn Zirg’оn who were Khorezmian intellectuals, writers, statesmen. The works of as-Saolibiy were valued greatly by European and Russian Oriental scholars. Later as-Saolibiy worked with Abu Rayhon Beruniy and did scientific explorations in the palace of Sulton Mahmud. "Yоtimat ad-dahr" was printed in 1883 and in 1947, in Bayrut and Cairo. Last century, the work translated into French, Latin , Russian and Uzbek and printed. A prominent arabshunos Uzbek scientist researched the scientific and literary works of as-Saоlibiy for a long time and translated them into Uzbek from Arabic, obtained to introduce these rare medieval cultural heritage to contemporary young generation.
ABUL HAYR IBN AL-HAMMOR
Another prominent scholar of Ma'mun academy was Abul Hayr ibn al-Hammоr (942-1032), born in Bagdad, the centre of Xalifalik. There he was educated medicine, logics, philosophy, became well-known scholar. Al Hammor was talented ,especially in medicine, and called as second Socrates. Later, being invited by Khorazmshoh Mamun, he moved to Urgench in 1017. He worked with Beruniy and others in Mamun Academy. At that year as other scholars ibn-Hammоr olib ketildi to G'azna by Mahmud Gaznaviy. Talented scholar ibn Hammоr passed away in G'azna, when he was 50. Ibn Hammоr acquired Arabic, Persian, Suryoniy and Greek languages fluently, translated most books from Suryoniy and Greek into Arabic. He was well-known especially in medicine. Although he wrote approximately 10 works, most of them haven't been survived until our own times. The survived books, which were written in the palace of Mamun are followings : "Maqоla fi imtihоn al-attibbо" (The book about experiences of physicians), the book was dedicated to the Khorezmshoh Ma'mun. "Maqоla fi хulq al-insоn va tarkib a’zоih" (The book about human character and the structure of the parts), "Kitоb al-Havоmil" (The book for pregnants) and "Kitоb tadbir al-mashоyiх" (The book about the actions of old people). The above-mentioned books contain the theoretical and practical matters of medicine. Ibn Sino used the works of ibn-Hammоr as a first source while writing "Tib qоnunlari. As his co-workers in Ma'mun Academy ibn-Hammоr wrote his works in Arabic which was scientific language at that time.
ABU MAHMUD XO'JANDIY
Abu Mahmud Хo’jandiy also worked in Ma'mun Academy, was the close friend of Beruniy , Abu Mahmud Хo’jandiy was a teacher of Beruniy in inventing astronomical equipment. He was interested in astronomy from his early childhood and wrote many works in this field, his works were greatly valued among the scholars of Academy. His works and inventions were defined as " The rare evident of century" by Beruniy. According to survived information he was born in the middle of the X century in Kho'jand. The town was called as "The beauty of the world" was the centre of handicrafts , trade and culture. His boyhood passed at that town. There he was educated mathematics, astronomy, geometry and medicine. He was taught in Marv and Urganch madrasas, taught by outstanding scientists. According to some sources * Abu Mahmud went to Baghdad and talked well-known scholars. When he arrived in Ray town, he was recognized as scholar in the Orient. The chairman of Ray, Fahruddavla (976-997) offered him a job in the palace. . Abu Mahmud intensified his creative and practical work. He was the leader of constructing observatory near themountain of Taborak, in Ray. Observatory was equipped with 43 metredastronomical equipment -sextant which was invented by his own with the help of that equipment he observed the height of the movement of the sun and the equilibrium of stars. They got acquainted with 22- year old Beruniy and they became friends in 996. They carried out astronomical observations together formerly in Ray, later gurganj. Beruniy learned a lot of novelties concerning astronomy and learned the secrets of creating usturlab from him. Abu Mahmud Kho’jandiy investigated the works of contemporary scholars and outstanding far east and middle east astronomers. He used the methods of constructing observatories of the town, while constructing Taborak observatory. Later Abu Mahmud Kho’jandiy moved to Gurganj with the proposal of friends and apprentice Beruniy continued his scientific research in Ma'mun Academy. He worked there until 1017, after the conquest, he returned to Ray and passed away there. Abu Mahmud wrote more than ten works concerning astronomy and mathematics basing on his observations and experience, as well as invented astronomical equipment. However, only ‘ The law of astronomy’ ‘ Determining the position and structure of the country’, ‘The law of using general astronomical instruments’ and others have been survived until our own times. The scientific heritage of Abu Mahmud Kho’jandiy greatly influenced the development of astronomy in the next centuries in the Orient. Astronomical equipment-sextant which was invented by outstanding member of Ma'mun Academy, was installed in the observatories of Marоg’a ( Iran XIII century), Samarkand (XV century), also Jaypur (India, XVII century) and so on. The sextant of Abu Mahmud was greatly valued in the work of Jamshid Kоshiy,the leader of the construction of Samarqand observatory. Birjandiy, the scholar who lived in XVI century defined that the inventions of Abu Mahmud Хo’jandiy was distinguished among other astronomical equipment , invented in the Orient.Thus, the name of prominent scholar of Mamun academy, the friend and teacher of Beruniy, the inventor of astronomical equipment, the name of Abu Mahmud Khojandiy is stayed immortal.
ABU NASR IBN IROQ
Abu Nasr ibn Irоq was the master of Bеruni. One of the peshqadam siymo, outstanding scholar in the field of mathematics, astronomy, trigonometry. There doesn't exist the sufficient information about his life and work. According to some sources, he was the close relative Abdullоh the last shah of Оfrig’iys while another sources shows that he was relative of Ma’mun shahs. Abu Nоsr was born in Kat, the capital of Khorezmshahs. There prominent scholars worked and masjids and madrasas worked regularly, Abu Nоsr was educated in madrasas of Kat and brought up by prominent scholars. As he was greatly interested in natural sciences from his early childhood. He learned Persian ,Greek and Latin languages fluently and read the manuscripts of especially Greek scholars Euclid, Ptolemy, Menelaus, Archimedes also the works of al-Khоrazmiy and al-Fоrоbiy, he became prominent scholar in the palace of Оfrig’iys. He researched in madrasas of Kat, at the same time. He worked as muddaris, gave knowledge to talented young generation. He dedicated several works written in this town to Beruniy. From 996 to 1017 Abu Nasr worked in the palace of Ma'mun and in Ma'mun academy. He wrote rarely works concerning astronomy and mathematics in cooperation with, Bеruniy, ibn Sinо, Abu Sahl Masihiy. In 1017 Mahmud G’aznaviy olib ketdi him to the capital of G'azna. Therefore, there doesn't exist sufficient information about the scientific works of him, carried out in G'azna. He passed away in 1036, in G'azna.
Abu Nasr Iroq's 30 works concerning mathematics and astronomy "Al Majistiy ash - Shоhiy" (written between 999-1010 and dedicated to Khorezmshah Ma'mun II), "Risоla fi-l-usturlоb" ( the pamphlet on astrvolobiya) , "Risоla fi-l-хall shubha arazat fi-l-maqоlat as-sоla ashar min kitоb al-usul" (the pamphlet on solving the dilemma occurred in 13 article of Method book), "Risоla fia-baraхin a’mоl jadval at-Tavikim ar-salоha il-al - Bеruniy" (The arguments of actions of taim tables sent to Beruniy ), "Mеnеlоyning sfеrikasi" (the sphere of Menelaus) "Sind-Hind mulliflarda tеnglama ikkilanishining sabablari haqida kitоb" (the reason of vacillating in equation of sind-indian mathematicians), "Gеоmеtriyadan savоllarga javоb risоlasi", (the pamphlet of answering the questions of geometry) have been survived until our own times. These works made him outstanding been at that time. Thus, Abu Nasr was called as "Batlimus sоniy"second Ptolemy with great title. Ibn Irоq defined the reasons of origin of arifmethics and geometry, the velocity of movement of astronomical bodies with advanced thoughts .
Speaking the theoretical and practical mathematics he said that "mathematics strengthens intellectual ability and fantasy. This subject helps to realize incomplete thoughts, because its basic rules are known, the arguments are easy. There is less difficulty in mathematics, it supports mind yagona g'oyani ilgari suradi’. Oriental and occidental scholars investigated his works, and marked that argument of theory sinuses for spherical triangles was discovered firstly in history by Abu Nasr Irоq. It was confirmed to be true by al-Bеruniy and Nasriddin Tusiy (1201-1274) at that time. In fact, the master of Bеruniy, outstanding scholar of Khorezm Ma'mun academy, Abu Nasr ibn Irоq was initiator of plain and spherical of trigonometry in the history of mathematics in the world. His contributions in the field of mathematics and astronomy were greatly valued by the scientists of the world. He was defined as "Abu Nasr Irоq was the greatest mathematician occupied with mathematics" by well-known poet and philosopher al-Fоrоbiy.
ABU ALI IBN SINO
Ibn Sinо was greatly respected encyclopedic scholar contributed greatly to the world science, honoured "Shayh -ur rais" (the master of scholars ) in the Orient. His complete name was Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abdullоh al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Sinо, called as "Avicеnna" in Europe. He was naturalist, physician, mathematician, astronomer, musician, physician and specialist in literature and poet, born in 980, Afshana, the village of Bukhara. His father was from Balkh, worked in the palace of Somali. . Ibn Sinо was educated mathematics, philosophy, medicine, logics, law by private teachers Abu Abdullо Nоtiliy, Ismоil Zоhid and Abu Mansur Qamariy then he went to madrasa, he became well known scholar when he was 17.he acquired Arabic, Persian, Greek fluently with his rare talent, read the rare manuscripts in the library of the palace of Nuh ibn Mansur who was the ruler Bukhoro, investigated the works of of Aristоtle, Еuclid, Ptоlеmy, Galеn, Hippоcrates, Pifоgоr and other scholars. At that time he got acquainted with Beruniy by letter they debated on physics, astronomy, mechanics, and others. After the conquest of Qorakhoniys, Somalis government finished and Ibn Sino left Bukhoro, moved to Gurganj. There he got acquainted with well- known scholars and became friends as well as assisted to organize great scientific academy. He finished the former two volumes of his famous work "Tib qоnunlari" in Ma'mun academy. However worrying the pursue of Mahmud Gaznaviy, he left Khorezm and his wandering life began. He travelled to the towns Obivard, Tus, Nishоpur, Jurjоn and Hamadоn, Isfahоn of Khorosan and obivard. He worked as physician in the palace of Qоbus ibn-Vashmgir, the ruler of Jurjon and worked as vizier in the palace of Abu Tоhir, the ruler of Hamadon. Then he stopped these positions and dedicated his life to science. The rest parts of "Kitоb ush - shifо", "Kitоb un - najоt", "Kitоb un-insоf" were written in Hamadon and Isfahon as an emigrant. He passed away from serious illness in Hamadon in 1037, when he was 57. His grave has been survived and nowadays it is a place of pilgrimage. There can be seen the influence of the works of scholars of central Asia, Iran, India, and especially Khorezm Ma'mun academy in the works of Ibn Sino. The scholar greatly contributed to world science. He wrote approximately 450 works concerning different fields of science. Out of them 242 works have been survived. 80 of the books are concerned to philosophy and tasavvuf, 43 are concerned to medicine, 23 are concerned to nature science, 8 are concerned to mathematics and astronomy others are concerned with logics, moral and literature.’Tib qonunlari’ is used as main manual in medicine in the orient and occident. There are given the theoretical and practical issues, human diseases, the methods of treatment, various herbs, more than 800 medicines prepared from the substances of plants and animals taken in chemical ways. In this book , “ Yurak Dorilari” ("the medicine of cardiac ") was used important manual until XIX century by oriental physicians. The conceptions of preserving environment, ecological in order to keep to maintenance the health of people and preventing illnesses are relevant even nowadays. The perceptions that the invisible microbes, spreading the pollution of air and water can be the main cause of various illnesses was the discovery in science . The advanced scholar Ma'mun academy Ibn Sino discovered novelties related to anatomy, psychology, pharmacology, therapy, surgery, hygiene and ecology and extended them. Besides them he contributed greatly to chemistry, mineralogy, geology, astronomy, mathematics and biology. His ideas about the formation of mountains , the changing of the earth surface, the causes of earthquakes played important role geology to be as an independent subject . he narrated about the tasks in bringing up young generation in his work named “Hikmat Buloqlari” (The springs of wisdom ) and stated the following " This subject should bring up such people , they should think only about themselves , but also other people and public , and should strive for their blessings, love for work , good moral characters and honesty should be dominant in people's behaviour." These ideas are relevant in bringing up young generation even today.
Thousands of years ago, the largest science center of the East, ‘Dar-al Hikma and Marifa’ was established in Khorezm’s capital city Gurganj (Kunya Urgench) as a result of the effort of the Khorezmshah Ali IbnMamun and Mamun Ibn Mamun, belonging to the enlightened family of mamunids, as well as encyclopedic scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni. This educational establishment, dealt with actual problems of science at that time, continued the oldest scientific and educational traditions formed by the "Bayt al-Hikma", operating in Baghdad two centuries before Mamun Academy, as well as Central Asia, in particular, Khorezm region, and gained its proper place in the development of the science. Activity of the scientists of "Dar al-Hikma and Marifa" caught the attention of the European and Russian oriental scientists indeed in the last century. European scientist E.Zaxau, Russian orientalist academicians S.P. Tolstov, I.Yu.Krachkovskiy, A.Yu.Yakubovskiy, P.G. Bulgakov, Uzbek academician scientists Ya.G'ulomov, I.Mo'minov, M.Khayrullaev, A.Ahmedov, B.Abduhalimov and many others researched the scientific activities of the Academy, and proved that it was the Academy of Sciences of its time. Eventually, this establishment has begun to be called as the Khorezm Academy of Mamun. This residence of science, called as "Dar al-Hikma" or "Majlisi Uloma", was not a random assembly of the scientists, writers, and poetsaimed at the increase of the fame of Khorezmshah Empire. From that point of view it would be completely wrong to look at the issue. In other words, it did not come to existence there by chance, but it had solid foundation. Firstly, Khorezm Academy of Mamun directly related to the roots of science and education of the ancient Khorezm, as well as, it is the result of an initial mid-century Renaissance period cultural growth. Since, enthusiasm towards the science, especially in astronomy, mathematics and other knowledge appeared rather early in the ancient Khorezm region.
Khorezm, one of the cradles of civilization,as the first President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov expressed, is one of the Holy places, where the cornerstone of the Uzbek statehood was founded. The Holy book "Avesta" and the religion of Zoroastrianism, which is considered as the wealth of mankind,is created in this beautiful land. The initial encyclopedic work of the ancient Middle East - "Avesta" included in itself religious, philosophical, scientific and educational views of our ancestors imbued with the humanitarian ideals for.
Three thousand years ago,irrigation-based farming culture, the unique construction of irrigation facilities, beautiful cities and magnificent architecture built in this sacred land, and their ruins are still preserved.
In addition, the fact that Khorezmians had their own writing, based onthe Aramaic alphabet, proves that they were literate and educated. Ancient examples of writings, household goods, jewelry, sculptures made by fine taste, colorful images painted on the walls of the palace, ancient Qoyqirilgan Qala Observatory and initial astronomical instruments, found by archeologist scientists, academician S.P. Tolstov, Ya.G. Gulyamov, I.Yu. Yakubovskiy and others, in Tuproqqala, Ayoz Qala, Qoyqirilgan Qala, Hazarasp and other ancient fortresses of the Khorezm in the middle of the last century are the evidence of high level cultural development of the Khorezm during the antic period.
According to Biruni's testimony, the ancient Khorezmians had their own calendar system related to farming activities. The necessity for periodical planning of Agricultural work played a significant role in the strong development of the mathematics and astronomy in the Khorezm region. Excavation of large channels and the construction of irrigation facilities, which are the basis of agriculture, beautiful city, palaces and other architectural buildings require the development of the science of mathematics, geometry, and topography. Unique jewelry and examples of colorful art serveas a proof of the high levels of the knowledge regarding chemistry and mineralogy. Commercial and cultural relations of Khorezm, conducted with foreign countries,influenced on the early development of the geography, cartography and ethnography. Thus, there were enough material and moral foundation for the development of exact and social sciences in Khorezm, indeed in the ancient times.
In addition to the aforementioned factors, the works of the ancient Greek scientists, scientific discoveries of our fellow countrymen Muhammad al-Khwarizmi, al-Ferghani, as well as Ahmad al-Marvaziy and Abbas al-Javhariy, conducted researches in the ninth-century Baghdad Academy - "Bayt al-Hikma", playedalso a key role in the formation and development of the Khorezm Academy of Mamun. Scientists of the Khorezm Academy of Mamun have got spiritual nourishment from the works of the scholars mentioned above, developed and enriched their scientific conclusions and discoveries with their own newly conducted studies.
It should be noted that, at the beginning of the eighth century, the entire Movarounnakhr and the Khorezm was occupied by the Arab general Qutayba. Towns and villages of the Movarounnakhr were destroyed, ancient manuscripts and masterpiecesof the culture were burned in the fire, scientists and scholars were killed by the Arab invaders. However, the cultural life did not cease to exist. Despite the difficulty and complexity of the condition, science and education began to shine again here soon.
After the invasion of the Arabs, the government in Khorezm was divided in two parts. The southern part of the Khorezm was ruled by Abu Abdullah Muhammad, the ruler of the Afrigids, in the city of Kat, and the northern part was under the reign of Mamun ibn Muhammad (995-997), emir of the Caliphate. After the battle between two rulers, succeeded Mamun ibn Muhammad united the entire Khorezm under his reign, and received the title of Khorezmshah, eventually moved the capital city to Gurganj. During the control of his successors, Ali ibn Mamun (997-1009) and Mamun II ibn Mamun (1009-1017), the ancient system of government administration and cultural traditions were restored, the city life, shopping and crafts developed better than ever. According to the work of the Arab historian Istakhriy,at the beginning of the 10th century there were 9 to 13 cities in Khorezm. However, half a century later, the number of cities tripled or increased to 40. The cities such as, Gurganj, Khiva, Kat, Hazarasp, Ardakhushmison (Vayangan), and Kardaranxos (Kalazhik) became major economic and cultural centers of the East. Khorezmians reached even to the far Spain and started trade and cultural affairs. Particularly,status of the capital, Gurganj, swelled, architecture and flourishing of the places developed in the city, beautiful palaces, caravan palace, mosques and madrassas, public buildings and market stalls were erected. This was the beginning of the creative work, developed in XII-XIII centuries, in Khorezm.
The author of the manuscript “Tarifi Shahri Xorazm” (Description of the city of Khorezm)informs that there were functioning 170 large and small markets, 5 thousand mosques, 700 madrassas and thousand bathhouses in Gurganj. Arab tourists who visited the areaduring that period noted that Khorezm and the capital city of Gurganj was beautiful, paradise resort, the population was affluent and educated.
Similarly, Al-Muqadasiy (X century) described Khorezmians as "the people of natural wisdom, research skills and knowledge as well as jurisprudence".
Yoqut Hamawi (XIII century)said "I have never been to a place like the capital of the Khorezm,Gurganj, that is glorious, rich, and immeasurably beautiful, with knowledgeable people". Ibn Battuta (XIII century) developed the aforementioned points and valued the Khorezmians as following: "I have not been fortunate in meeting the people as Khorezmians, who are kind, hospitable, and gentle to foreigners, as well as mastered the jurisprudence".
Above mentioned socio-political and spiritual conditions prepared necessary environment for the functioning of the Khorezm Academy of Mamun. Enlightened ruler, Ali ibn Mamun, developed cultural and educational activities in Gurganj. He established royal palace library, and enriched it with the rare manuscripts, brought from different cities of the East. Talented youth learnt religious and secular sciences at the madrassa, built beside the palace. That period was the flourishing era of the science in Khorezm. Khorezmshah Ali ibn al-Ma'mun called for Abu Rayhan Biruni from Jurjon, appointed him as the chief consultant and conducting diplomatic relations with foreign countries was assigned as his duty. According to the decree of Ali ibn Ma'mun, the largest scientific and educational center of the East – the "Dar al-Hikma va Ma'rifa" or the Academy of Mamun was established. Biruni was appointed as the Chairman of this educational establishment. The fame of the "Dar al-Hikma va Ma'rifa" increased indeed during the reign of Khorezm shah Mamun II. In this Academy, except from Khorezmians, more than a hundred scientists, lawyers, writers, theologians, came from Bukhara, Samarkand, Jand, Marv, Nishopur, Balkh, Iran, Iraq, India, Egypt, Sham (Syria) and other regions, conducted researches and made great discoveries regarding the various fields of science. Mamunids were sovereigns that valued education and science. They promoted scientists of the Academy, supported researches with every possible kind of aid, provided the scientists with necessary conditions.
Scientists from Khorezm, mathematician and astronomer Abu Nasr Iraq, al-Kharijiy, al-Khamdaki, chemist AbulHakim Muhammad ibn Abdulmalik as Saleh al-Khwarizmi al-Kosi, Ahmad ibn Muhammad as-Suhayl Al Khwarizmi and others, as well asan encyclopedic scholar from Bukhara, famous physician Abu Ali ibnSina,historian, philosopher and poet Abul Baghdad Hayit bin Hammor, physician and philosopher Abu SahlIsa I bn Yahya al-Masihiy al-Jurjoniy, mathematician and astronomer Mahmud bin Xidral-Ho'jandiy, historian and poet Abu Mansur al-Abdulmalik ibn Muhammad ibn Ismail as Saolobiy, Abul Khayr al-Hasan ibn Sivar ibn Boba ibn Bixnam, Abu Sayd Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Iraq, al-Xamadoniy, Abu Abdullah Biyon Naysoburiy, Ahmad ibn Hamid al-Naysoburiy, historian ibn Misxavayx, Abul-Fazl Bayhakiy, naturalist Abu Abdullah Husaynibn Ibrahim at-Tabari al-Notiliy, Ahmad ibn Muhammad as-Sahriy and other leading scientists, under the supervision of Abu Rayhan Biruni, solved many scientific and practical issues, and made a huge contribution to the development of the global science. The names of the above mentioned scientists are the list (not completed yet) of the scholars worked at the Academy, including Khorezmians as the majority of the scientists.
Scientists conducted deeply researches on secular and natural sciences, particularly on astronomy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, mineralogy, cartography, geography, geometry, biology, medicine, philosophy, history, language, logic, literature, Islamic jurisprudence and other fields of the science. They knew Arabic, Persian, Indian, Latin, Greek and Turkish languages. After the keenly analysis of the works of Plato, Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid, Pythagoras, Galen and other Greek scholars, scientists of the Academy dedicated their comments to these works. They studied the subjects above and enriched them with new ideas. At the same time, they taught youth at the madrassas of the Gurganj, and made a major contribution to prepare talented scholars. In addition, the schools of astronomy (Biruni), mathematics (Abu Nasr), chemistry (Abul Khayr Khammor), within the academy, served to give deep knowledge to youth. So far, the madrasas of the Gurganj and a foresaid schools became the dwellings of real science. The students graduated from those madrasas and schools, eventually became prominent scholars of the East.
The scientists of Khorezm Academy of Mamun wrote mostly on humanitarian subjects and exact science, and inherited them to the next generation. Their importance has been preserved to date. Abu Rayhan Biruni (973-1048) was senior scientist, a great leader and one of the outstanding coordinators of the Mamun Academy. He was educated by his teachers, Abu Nasr Iraq, al-Masihiy and al-Khirojiy, at his childhood, and became a leading scientist in the fields of astronomy, mathematics, biology and history. Beruni is the author of 156 works regarding various subjects, and only 30 of them endured to date. "Monuments remained from ancient People”,“India", "Mineralogy”,“ Qonuni Ma'sudiy" (Masudiy Law), "Saydana" and other works of the scholar gained great fame at his period, and still considered as rare works of the global science. His great service in the field of astronomy was his thoughts about the sun, moon and planets, and conclusions about their position in space. He proved the scientific idea concerning rotation of the Earth around its axis, almost six centuries before European scientists. His conclusions about the measurements of the Earth are similar to the contemporary science, and rather precise and perfect. Biruni explained the interpretations of arithmetic, algebra, geometry and theory of numbers with proper order, advanced the level of trigonometry as independent science. In his researches of the geography, represented the precise coordinates of the countries, seas and islands according to the seven climates, and created the most comprehensive map of the world of his time. He made the peculiar shape of the globe with the help of astronomical instruments that he invented,and that was one of the greatest inventions in the history of mankind. Apart from Greek scholars, proved the connection of the Indian and Atlantic oceans via original method, and made scientific predictions about thelarge unknown continent behind the ocean – America. Biruni was one of the encyclopedic scholars, who inherited rich legacy on history, ethnography, language, literature and medicine.
Oneof the foremost scholars of Khorezm Academy of Mamun was Abu Nasr Iraqi (died 1039). He was prominent among scientists by his researches on mathematics and astronomy. He was the author of more than 30 works on the subjects above. 12 of them is devoted to his student– Biruni. "Al Majistiy ash-shohiy" (King al-Magesti). "Risola fil Usturlob" (Book on Astrology), “A book about sent calendar schedules to Biruni", "Spheres of Menelay" and other pamphlets remained. Abu Nasr was one of the founders of the flat and spherical trigonometry. His scientific conclusions were widely used even in the fields of construction and architecture. Central Asia's most famous mathematician, philosopher and poet, Al-Farabi, praised the creative work of the scientist and cited the following about him: “the greatest of the famous scholars, who studied mathematics, was Abu Nasr Iraq”. His works brought a huge success and was titled as "Ptolemey Soniy” (Second Ptolemy).
Abu Ali ibn Sino (980-1037), who was famous in the science of medical treatment not only in the East, but also in Europe, was one of the most prolific scholars of the Mamun Academy. Ibn Sina was born in the village of Afshona, Bukhara. He was taught by eminent scholars at the madrasas of Bukhara and became proficient scholar of the medical science, as well as mathematics, astronomy, biology, chemistry, and music. According to the invitation of Biruni, Ibn Sino came to Gurganj in 1004, and began his career with Abu Nasr Iraq, Abu Sahl Masihiy, Abul Khayr Khammar at the forefront of the Khorezm Academy of Mamun. Ibn Sino wrote almost 450 booklets on diverse fields of science, andnearly 50 of them are connected with medical science. Initial two volumes of his famous work "Tib Qonunlari" (Regulations of the Medicine) and other works were written in Gurganj, in this Academy. Ibn Sino's medical works was considered as rare works of that period, as well as today is still appreciated in the world of medical science. His books used as a course book in European universities, and physicians used them as a reliable guide. Ibn Sina died because of a serious illnessat the age of 57, in 1037 in the Iranian city of Hamadan.
Abu Sahl al-Masihiy (970-1011) was also eminentscholar of the Academy, and was the author of dozens of books on astronomy, mathematics, natural sciences and philosophy. 8 treatises of them were on medicine, preserved till present.